E Finally it's black white on paper. The Formula 1 regulations were drawn up in words and pictures in time for the October 31 deadline. The FIA World Council unanimously approved it on Thursday (October 30, 2019). It is therefore clear that Ferrari also agrees to the rules. The Italians are the only team represented on the World Council. In theory, Ferrari would still have five days to exercise its right of veto. Now that it has been approved by the World Council, that should be unlikely.
FIA President Jean Todt summarized: “It is a milestone in the history of sport. For the first time we have put the rules for technology, sport and finance into one package. We did it to provide Formula 1 with a sustainable basis. I am proud that the FIA World Council has unanimously approved these rules. ”
The new rules for 2021 will turn Formula 1 on its head. For the first time in the history of the premier class, the teams are not allowed to spend more than a certain amount of money. For the first time, an attempt is made to narrow the difference between large and small. Due to the budget cap, a fairer distribution of money and a technical regulation with less freedom. For the first time, the framework conditions for cars are designed to make driving in traffic easier.
FIA and Formula 1 management have been working on the new statutes for Formula 1 since September 2017. The concept of the new car went through 13 stages of development. The last version, called 'Lima', has been refined again in recent weeks at the request of the teams. The architects of the 2021 car, Nikolas Tombazis and Pat Symonds, gave the engineers a little more freedom in some areas. For example, the nose, the side pods, the underbody, the airbox and the front wing end plates.
Criticism of the F1 car for 2021
Nevertheless, the new regulations are still receiving criticism. In particular, Ferrari, Mercedes and Red Bull are too restrictive of the rules. You speak of a 'GP1' in which the cars will hardly differ any more. In their opinion, the budget cap of $ 175 million is a restriction and equalizer enough. The masterminds counter that additional technical restrictions are needed because the cost cap could not be reduced far enough. In addition, the new cars will differ significantly in at least five major areas.
The major teams are not happy with the distribution of money either. They think they deserve more of the cake. With the new regulations, the Formula 1 contract, which is to replace the Concorde agreement from 2021, has also been sent to the teams.
Now that the eggs have been laid, it's about who signs and who doesn't. The teams no longer have the right to object. You can only refuse. On November 5th, the lawyer hired by nine teams consults with the individual lawyers of the racing teams in order to filter out any pitfalls. Only Mercedes brings its own lawyer to the start. Then it's time to wait.
Formula 1 management has not set the teams a deadline. But if Ferrari stayed in the boat, that would be half the battle for the FIA and Formula 1 management. Jean Todt is confident: “It is in the best interests of everyone involved that the teams register for 2021 as soon as possible. Hundreds of jobs and sponsorship contracts are attached to it. I'm confident that in the end, common sense will prevail. ”
An entirely new aerodynamic set-up is coming to F1 in 2021- Formula 1 (@ F1) October 31, 2019
It's the first time in history that F1 cars have specifically been designed with a chasing car in mind # F12021 pic.twitter.com/jNYvbr2e44
We'll show you in detail what it's all about:
The technical regulations:
The FIA changed its philosophy when drafting the technical rules. While every detail was previously described by dimension, weight or specification, the car is now divided into 50 legality boxes and a coordinate system in X-Y-Z planes. In some of these boxes there is freedom, in others there are strict regulations on form and design.
The aim was to minimize gray areas and not give the engineers too much leeway. In addition, the rules are now more clearly defined. In the past it could happen that there were several provisions for one component at different points in the regulations. That was cleaned up. The technical regulations have been expanded from 111 to 141 pages.
But what does it look like, the Formula 1 car of the future? At first glance at the official photos, one can say: the new car looks more elegant, tidier and simpler. One could speak of a modern retro look. The front wing, for example, is now growing out of the nose again. We last saw that in the early 1990s. Baffles disappear completely. This, too, is an invention of the early 1990s. Finally the ground effect principle returns. It was banned at the end of 1982.
That caught our eye at first glance:
- the deep nose , in which the front wing is integrated
- the curved front wing, consisting of four elements
- the triangular front wing end plates reaching up to half the wheel height
- the L-shaped wings Above the front wheels
- the complete waiver of baffles between the front wheels and side pods
- the short, strongly recessed side pods with extremely high cooling openings
- the large tunnels under the car that begin in front of the side pods via an upward tunnel with three channels each
- the airbox, which is ducked over a stem in which the halo is better integrated
- the rear wing, which is suspended from two central pillars. It consists of two elements at the top and one at the bottom
- the rear wing end plates, which are strongly drawn inwards, arrow backwards in the side view
- the clad 18 inch wheels and low profile tires
- the huge diffuser
The teams fear that the cars will be up to six seconds slower from 2021. Pat Symonds believes it will only be half as much. Nikolas Tombazis specifies: “We expect lap times that will be between three and three and a half seconds behind the current cars. Our model was developed by a small group of aerodynamicists. The teams have a lot more people available. That's why we expect a steep development curve. ”Formula 1 sporting director Ross Brawn makes a comparison:“ We will start with the output figures from 2016. ”
Despite the ground effect, the cars are running out with huge tunnels under the fairing Lose 20 percent downforce and be 25 kilograms heavier. A further tightening of the safety rules, the heavier tires, drive units weighing 5 kilograms and the use of standard parts push the weight to at least 768 kilograms. For this, the wheelbase could be limited to a maximum of 3,600 millimeters. The length thus shrinks by almost 10 centimeters.
Only 6 percent loss of downforce in traffic
The main objective of the new rules was to make it easier to follow behind. The air vortex behind the car is diverted upwards with the new concept. This should allow the front wing of the car driving behind to work in almost clean air. Three car lengths behind a car there should be almost optimal flow again.
At the moment the car behind is losing 32 percent of its downforce in this area. In 2021 it should only be 6 percent. Tombazis explains: “We have simplified the front wing and banned the baffles in order to give the engineers fewer opportunities to control the flow to the rear.
The accusation that the cars of the next Formula 1 generation would all be look the same, the Formula 1 management counters with a representation of three possible game types. They show three different noses, three front wing profiles, three cooling inlets and side box shapes and three tunnels under the car.
There is also scope for creativity with the brake ventilation, the airbox and the rear wing. “All the variants are visually very different. We are sure that the teams will come up with even more different ideas, 'said the initiatorsof the new rules.
The engine regulations will be adapted. It remains with the 1.6 liter V6 turbo with two electric motors. The drive units are 5 kilograms heavier because the choice of materials used is further restricted. It is no longer allowed to conclude exclusive contracts with manufacturers of turbochargers and batteries. The high pressure gasoline pump becomes a standard part. From 2021, the fuel must consist of 20 percent biomass. This proportion should be increased continuously in order to drive with completely CO²-neutral fuels as soon as possible.
These are the most important dimensions and numbers:
- Width car: 2,000 mm
- Width front wing: 1,950mm
- Width covering between the wheels: 1,600 mm
- Height car: 960 mm
- Max. Wheelbase: max. 3,600 mm
- Minimum weight: 768 kg
- Motor: 1.6 liter monoturbo with MGU-K and MGU-H
- Weight of drive unit. min. 150 kg
- Weight battery: max. 25 kg
- Transmission: 8 gears + reverse gear
In order to save costs and bring the field closer together, some invisible parts have been standardized or prescribed in a narrow framework. There are five categories. Parts that everyone has to build themselves such as the chassis, the wings, the fairing, the wiring harness or the cooler (LTC). Parts that each team can build themselves, but whose design drawings must be made available to other teams, such as the DRS mechanism, the drive shafts, the steering column, the steering wheel or the brakes (OSC).
Parts that everyone can manufacture themselves for which there is no constructive leeway such as the base plate, the brake drums or the hubcaps (PDC). Parts that are completely standardized such as the high pressure gasoline pump, parts of theGasoline system, various sensors, the collector tank or the rims (SSC). And parts that can be sold by one team to another, such as the hydraulics, the coupling or the suspensions (TRC).
Here are the abbreviations for the individual types of parts: LTC (Listed team components), OSC (open source components), PDC (prescribed design components), SSC (standard supply components) and TRC (transferable components).
The sporting regulations:
The sports law was completely new structured. It is now written on 88 instead of 70 pages. The aim was to simplify the rules so that the fan understood the sport better. The key point here is also cost savings. To increase the number of races to 25, new restrictions apply to the schedule on a weekend. From 2021, that doesn't start until Friday. Using a European race, we show what the new schedule looks like:
9.00-11.00 a.m.: Technical inspection
12.30-2.00pm: First training
4.00pm-5.30pm: Second training
12.00-13.00pm: Third training
03.10 p.m.: race start
In the form , in which the cars are presented at the technical inspection on Friday, they also have to drive from Saturday. With the exception of the rear wing, certain suspension components and the radiator, nothing may be changed. In the free practice sessions on Friday, the teams can try out test components. The cars have to be restored to the technical acceptance level for Saturday.
This is to prevent the teams from traveling to the races with several different aerodynamic specifications and testing each other there. The teams are allowed to work on the cars for three and a half hours under Parc Fermé conditions on Friday and Saturday after the training sessions.
The number of engines and transmissions is still subject to an upper limit. The elements of the drive unit remain the same. The only addition: only eight exhaust systems are allowed per seasonbe used. The number of gearboxes will be limited to three per year and the number of brake systems will be limited to one per race.
The budget cap:
Ross Brawn defends the introduction a cost cap with the words: “Formula 1 became a victim of its own success. As a result, the budgets rose to unacceptable levels. We had to protect the teams from themselves. 'Chase Carey adds:' In the future, it will no longer matter how much money you spend, but how you use your money. 'In the coming season we will practice. A team of financial experts from Deloitte oversees the teams. But there are still no penalties.
Anyone who does not adhere to the budget ceiling from 2021 risks severe sports fines, including losing the World Cup title. The team bosses are held personally liable and can lose their license if the regulations are violated. You would then be banned from all FIA series. Teams are allowed to spend a maximum of $ 175 million per season starting in 2021. Excluded from this sum are:
- the engine costs: 12 to 15 million dollars
- the driver salaries: 5 to 45 million dollars
- the salaries of the three highest paid employees: 3 to 15 million dollars
- the travel and freight costs: 10 to 20 million dollars
- the marketing budget
- museum costs
For the top teams, the real cost cap should be around $ 250 million. While the small teams wanted a budget cap of a maximum of 150 million dollars without exceptions, Mercedes team boss Toto Wolff denies that the 175 million are set too low. “There is no inflation surcharge. In three years, 175 million of the purchasing power will be worth only 160 million dollars. '
Ross Brawn fends off criticism that the pressure from the big teams was given in. “We now have one foot in the door. If we hadn't taken this step, there would never have been a budget cap. 'The FIA reserves the right to lower or redefine the budget cap from 2024 if necessary.
Red Bull team boss Christian Horner did At the last minute, the proposal to postpone the technical regulations to 2022, but to start with the budget cap as early as 2021. “That would give us time to continue working on the technical rules. They are an interesting proposition, but not yet fully developed. We'd do Formula 1 a favor by expanding that even further. If we postpone the start of the new rules by a year, all teams would have to develop the new cars under the umbrella of the budget cap. Everyone would have the same starting point. Now the big teams can develop the 2021 car with all their power next year. This gives you an advantage over the small teams. 'McLaren team boss Andreas Seidl denies that:' We already have restrictions on wind tunnel times andCFD usage. They are the same for everyone.
The money distribution:
The small teams are better off. There are only special rights for Ferrari. The oldest Formula 1 racing team is the only team to receive a history surcharge of 5 percent of the amount paid out, i.e. around 50 million dollars. There is also a so-called master's bonus.
Anyone who has landed in the top 3 of the constructors' rating in the last ten years receives money according to a points key. This pot goes to 20 percent of what is distributed over $ 650 million, around $ 60 million. The Ferrari Bonus and the Master's Pot are deducted from the total amount of the available bonus before it is distributed. The remaining amount of approximately 850 million dollars is divided into two pillars:
- The entry fee: 50 percent of the total amount is distributed equally to all ten teams.
- The prize money: 50 percent of the sum is paid depending on the World Cup position.
According to this calculation, the world champion would get 128 million dollars from the scrap pot, the tenth-placed team 55 million. A team in midfield benefits a lot. Those who finish in fifth place today can expect $ 70 million including the entry fee. In 2021 it would be $ 95 million for the same total.