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CFD images of the 2019 aero rules: This is how & # 34; Dirty Air & # 34; out

CFD images of the 2019 aero rules
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I n the first 12 races of Formula 1 - The 2018 season saw an average of 32 overtaking maneuvers. The Australian GP was the worst with 5 changes of position, the French GP the best with 57 overtaking maneuvers. Paul Ricard of all people, where the drivers had warned in advance of a boring procession because the straights were too short and the chicane in between was too fast. But then on Sunday there was a headwind on the straight and there were overtaking maneuvers in abundance. They were almost a little too easy.

That shows how experts can be wrong. And how complex the matter is. If you could produce headwinds everywhere, 1,000 meters straight in connection with DRS would be sufficient. But on many racetracks the straights are too short, the lap times delta too small due to stable tire wear, or there is simply no headwind.

Because you don't want to rely on such parameters, a small group of engineers tinker with them under the direction of Pat Symonds on behalf of F1 management on the car of the day after tomorrow. Formula 1 will have a different face in 2021.

Part of this work can already be seen next year with new regulations for the wings and brake ventilation. It's also an experiment for Symonds' research group. Whatever the result, it will still flow into the 2021 car. If you are wrong, you can still correct. If you are on the right track, you can increase the learning effects.

But Pat Symonds is convinced that the general direction is right: “This time we put a lot more scientific effort into the project than we did in 2009 Paddy Lowe, Rory Byrne and I had already devised rules that were supposed to solve the overtaking problem. This time we ran our own simulations, and eight teams gave us great support. ”

Problem with the Y250 vortices

Jerry André
Williams has the CFD data with FloViz color for the tests with the new front wing for 2019 checked.

Originally, Symonds and five of his colleagues were working on the car for 2021. “We really started with a blank sheet of paper. And we wanted to take the time we needed so that the same thing didn't happen to us as it did in 2009. In this process, we were always open to trying out certain partial results earlier. When Jean Todt asked us if we could bring some of our work forward for 2019, we teamed up with Nikolas Tombazis from the FIA. ”

The goal at work has always been the drive for what follows Improve car. That was it in 2009 too. And why could it go so wrong then? “Because at that time we didn't have the technical means to test our ideas. Today we have it. '

' When we designed the front wing with the standardized middle section, we couldn't imagine that these Y250 vortices would arise at the transition to the unlimited part. And that we would encourage the engineers to use this special vortex for their own purposes. ”

Today the phenomena are well known. And they can also be easily visualized in the CFD simulation. For this purpose, two cars are placed in the digital wind tunnel at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 meters, one behind the other and offset one behind the other. The software calculates which current the leading vehicle is producing and how the following car will react depending on the distance and position to each other.

F1 management has sent auto motor und sport some of these computer graphics that show how the Current around the car and behind it. The quality of the flow is divided into high-energy and low-energy air. It is identified by colors in the digital representation. Blue and green stand for low-energy air, white for air with a lot of energy. Red and yellow lie in between.

The simulation shows in a horizontal and vertical cross-section that in the current cars, a large and wide zone of air with little energy is generated directly behind the rear wing. Bad for the driver who follows. He loses downforce. The eddies that meet behind the car are referred to as the wake. Strictly speaking, it starts behind the front wheels. But since nobody wants the bad air on the rest of the vehicle, it has to be eliminated somehow.

Engineers force bad air out

The section through the air behind the car shows: In the picture below (2019) the turbulence protrudes laterally not so far beyond the chassis.

This flushing out of turbulent air begins at the front wing and settles over brake ventilation, the air duct through the wheel hub of the front axle and baffles. The aim is to let as much of the harmful air flow drift outwards as possible. There it does not hurt your own vehicle. The following one already. The CFD simulation showed the project group for the first time what was happening in the area of ​​20 meters behind the car.

The two large air vortices merge there again, unfortunately at the same height as the front wing the following car urgently needs clean air. The ultimate goal is that the eddies either do not arise in the first place or are guided past within the wheels so that they are then deflected upwards by the diffuser and the rear wing and so cannot disturb the car behind.

The graphs for the 2019 car clearly show that the zone of low-energy air behind the car is getting narrower and smaller. The vertical cross-sectional images visualize that the eddies dissolve faster.

Symonds still sees a danger: “Perhaps new eddies could arise elsewhere that we hadn't thought of. Or the engineers could intentionally create vortices to direct the flow where they want it. We are six people here. The teams have 1,000 engineers. It's an unequal fight. ”

Symonds is nevertheless optimistic that you can find an answer to everything that your ex-colleagues are up to. After all, with the 2019 regulations you have a test balloon that you can intervene in before things get serious in 2021.

The immediate measures in 2019 are a 200 instead of 180 centimeter wide front wing with more depth, only five elements , without cascades, with a limited number of vertical flow straighteners and end plates pointing no more than 15 degrees outwards. In addition, brake ventilation without fins and winglets and no air passage through theMore front axle.

The rear wing is also getting new dimensions. Ten centimeters wider, two centimeters higher, and set back. It is supposed to divert the rest of the bad air that still arrives there upwards.

On the CFD images, the flow looks like a mushroom cloud. Formula 1 boss Ross Brawn believes in the concept: “In our analyzes, we not only found that the following car drives in significantly calmer air. The one in front also has a small disadvantage. What more do we want? ”

In the gallery we show and explain the fascinating CFD images in detail.


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